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Even without graph paper and a ruler, you should be able to sketch out a graph of this kind on the back of an envelope, and without recourse to any calculations at all make estimates of the pH of a solution of any pure acid and its conjugate base to an accuracy of about one pH unit. Besides being a useful tool for rough estimations of pH, the log-C plot provides considerable insight into the factors that determine the shape of the titration curve. As shown in the lower part of Fig. 11, you can use the log-C vs pH diagram to construct an approximate titration curve.

2 Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere CO2 has probably always been present in the atmosphere in the relatively small absolute amounts now observed. g. CaSiO3 + CO2 −→ CaCO3 + SiO2 have likely had a moderating influence on the CO2 abundance throughout geological time. 5 ) atm. In a crowded and poorly-ventilated room, PCO2 can be as high as 100 × 10−4 atm. About 54E14 moles per year of CO2 is taken from the atmosphere by photosynthesis, divided about equally between land and sea. 05% is returned by respiration (mostly by microorganisms); the remainder leaks into the slow, sedimentary part of the geochemical cycle where it can remain for thousands to millions of years.

1 can be very serious. These conditions are known medically as acidosis and alkalosis. They can be caused by metabolic disturbances such as diabetes and by kidney failure (in which excretion of H2 PO− 4 , for example, is inhibited). Chem1 General Chemistry Reference Text 40 Acid-base equilibria and calculations [From J. Zobrist and W. ] • 8 Acid rain Acids HCl (from pollution and volcanic emissions) H2SO4 HNO3 + Bases MgCO3 NH3 CaCO3 (introduced into the atmosphere) + Neutral aerosols NaCl + KCl CaSO4 SiO2 + Aluminosilicates 20 mmol of charge Rain anions ClÑ NO3Ñ SO42Ñ cations H+ (strong acids) Na+, K+ Ca2+ NH4+ Mg2+ Figure 14: Origin of acid rain Numerous other processes lead to temporary unbalances.

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Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s) by Lower S.K.


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