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Another important feature of Kelvin waves is that there is no flow component normal to the coastal line. Similar characteristics of Kelvin waves have also been found in the lower portion of the stratosphere in the tropics. Observations indicate that tropical Kelvin waves, having a period of 15 days and wavelength of 20,000-40,000 km, propagate eastward at a speed around 25 m s-1. In the tropics, there are no "physical coastal 44 boundaries" but owing to the change in the sign of the Coriolis parameter, the equator acts like "a boundary" in the generation of the observed Kelvin wave structures.

11) gives: ω2 = k2g2(γ−1) k2 2 = N . ca2[K2 + (2H)-2(2/γ−1)] K2 + (2H)-2(2/γ−1) Again if the vertical wavelength is less than the depth of the fluid, we obtain k ω=±NK , (22) which is the same as Eq. (20). It is evident that the hydrostatic approximation tends to distort slightly the structure of internal gravity waves, particularly for small-scale flows. Thus, we see that the propagation of acoustic waves requires that the density be adjusted to the compression/expansion of the waves, and the waves propagate as longitudinal, compressive waves.

We will first discuss the propagation of mixed gravity-acoustic waves in a non-rotating system, and later lower-frequency waves, called the internal inertia gravity waves, in a rotational framework. Then we will apply the wave theory to topographically forced mesoscale wave motions. The vertical propagation of internal gravity waves, mixed-Rossby-gravity waves, and Kelvin waves will also be discussed. The following governing equations, that include the compressibility and stratification of the atmosphere, will be our starting point for subsequent discussions: dV momentum dt + α ∇ p + fk x V - gk = 0, where dα .

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A short course on atmospheric and oceanic waves by Derome J., Zhang D.L.

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